Elections: Thomas Jefferson

Quote of the Day

"Honesty is the first chapter in the book of wisdom." - Thomas Jefferson

"Every government degenerates when trusted to the rulers of the people alone. The people themselves are its only safe depositories." - Thomas Jefferson

Day 3 VoCaBulary

 honor

freedom

poll

promise

bipartisan

president

propaganda

represent

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Thomas Jefferson:

Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826) was a founding father of the US, the author of the draft of the Declaration of Independence, and the third President of the United States of America. This great man was a long-term legislator, lawyer, diplomat, architect, inventor, scientist, agriculturist, writer, and revolutionary thinker.

Jefferson was born on April 13, 1743, at Shadwell, Goochland (now called Albemarle) County, Virginia.

Jefferson attended the College of William and Mary in Virginia. He later studied law privately. He began practicing law in 1767.

Monticello was the Virginia house that Jefferson designed and lived in most of his life. It was built on land that he inherited from his family. Construction on Monticello began in 1769 but continued for decades as Jefferson added to the house.

In 1772, Jefferson married Martha Wayles Skelton (she died in 1782, after giving birth to their sixth child, Lucy Elizabeth). Only two of their children survived to adulthood.

While a delegate to the Continental Congress in 1775, Jefferson drafted the Declaration of Independence.

In 1776, Jefferson was elected to the Virginia House of Delegates, where he fought for the separation of church and state and other causes that were important to him. Jefferson became the Governor of Virginia in 1779. In 1783, Jefferson was elected to Congress. Soon after, in 1785, President George Washington appointed Jefferson as the US Minister to France. In 1789, Washington appointed him Secretary of State, but he resigned on Dec. 31, 1793.

In 1796, Jefferson ran for President of the USA, but lost. John Adams won, and Jefferson became Vice-President of the USA.

Jefferson was elected President in 1800, he defeated John Adams. He was re-elected to a second term in 1804. His Vice-Presidents were Aaron Burr and George Clinton.

As President, Jefferson arranged the purchase of the Louisiana Territory. The Louisiana Territory increased the area of the United States tremendously. In 1804, Jefferson sent  Lewis and Clark to map the newly-acquired western US territory.

Jefferson retired from elected office in 1809 and went to live at Monticello - he never again left the state of Virginia. In 1814, Thomas Jefferson sold his extensive personal library to government of the US to re-start the Library of Congress, which has been burned during the War of 1812. In 1819, Jefferson founded the University of Virginia.

Jefferson died at Monticello on July 4, 1826, the 50th anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence. John Adams died later that same day. They were the only two signers of the Declaration of Independence who were elected presidents of the US.

Discovering Elections:
Whom did Jefferson campaign against when he was running for president of the United States? Thomas Jefferson ran against John Adams.

What is politics?  the art of guiding or influencing governmental policy

What is a political party? What were the first two main political parties in America?
A political party is a group of voters organized to support certain public policies.

Hamilton and other leaders who wanted a strong central government banded together to put over their policies. In 1787 they began calling themselves the Federalists. This was the first United States political party. In 1796, anti-Federalists gathered around Jefferson. Members of Jefferson's group called themselves Democratic-Republicans. Northern businessmen, bankers, and merchants supported the Federalists. They believed in a strong national (or federal) government. Federalists held that capital and industry were the basis of a healthy republic and that the federal government should act to protect the country's infant industries. The Democratic-Republican Party drew its followers from planters, small farmers, and artisans. These people wanted government to leave them alone as much as possible. They wanted to limit the federal government's power and leave the most power in the hands of state and local governments. In foreign affairs the Federalists generally leaned toward England, while the Democratic-Republicans sympathized with Revolutionary France.

Who created most of the American election rules? What is a primary and what is a caucus? The basic ideas were developed by the Constitutional Congress of 1786 and the founding fathers.

Caucuses and primaries are ways for the general public to take part in nominating presidential candidates. At a caucus, local party members gather to nominate a candidate. A primary is more like a general election. Voters go to the polls to cast their votes for a presidential candidate. Primary elections are the main way for voters to choose a nominee.

What is the presidential seal? What do the main elements of the seal represent? A symbol of presidental roles.

The seal of the president contains objects that represent some of the president's roles. The stars represent the 50 states. The olive branch symbolizes peace adn the role of diplomat and the arrows symbolize the president's role as commander in chief of the armed forces. The 13 stripes on the shield and the 13 clouds represent the 13 original states. The Latin motto means From many, one.

Describe the world history of political parties. When did they begin? What was the main difference between the two and what caused their formation? What were the first two main political parties in  America? What were the main differences in the parties? Who were their first presidental candidates that won an election?
Hamilton and other leaders who wanted a strong central government banded together to put over their policies. In 1787 they began calling themselves the Federalists. This was the first United States political party. In 1796, anti-Federalists gathered around Jefferson. Members of Jefferson's group called themselves Democratic-Republicans. Northern businessmen, bankers, and merchants supported the Federalists. They believed in a strong national (or federal) government. Federalists held that capital and industry were the basis of a healthy republic and that the federal government should act to protect the country's infant industries. The Democratic-Republican Party drew its followers from planters, small farmers, and artisans. These people wanted government to leave them alone as much as possible. They wanted to limit the federal government's power and leave the most power in the hands of state and local governments. In foreign affairs the Federalists generally leaned toward England, while the Democratic-Republicans sympathized with Revolutionary France.

List and describe the seven main steps in a presidential campaign and election.
Candidate announces plan to run for office. Candidate campaigns to win delegate support. Caucuses and primary elections take place in the states. Nominee for president is announced at national party conventions. Citizens cast their votes. The electoral college casts its votes. The president is inaugurated.